Maternal–fetal medicine is a specialists who sub specialize within the field of obstetrics. Their training typically includes a four-year residency in obstetrics and gynecology followed by a three-year fellowship. They would perform prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries. They take charge both as a consultant during lower-risk pregnancies and as the primary obstetrician in especially high-risk pregnancies. After delivery, they work closely with pediatricians or neonatologists. Perinatologists assist for the mother with pre-existing health concerns, as well as complications caused by pregnancy
Permanent contraception, such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.