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Gynography is nothing but, doing the “Radiography of the female genital organs” that uses “air or other gas” that is injected intraperitoneally as a contrast medium. Gynography was first invented by Abner I. Weisman

Gynograph is a new improved gynoroentgenologic apparatus which is used by gynecologists and radiologists in performing hysterosalpingography. Advantages of the gynograph is  when a foreign material is inserted into the uterus,  it is "practically free from complications" such as intravasation of the venous sinuses of the uterus and pulmonary emboli, cysts, pelvic peritonitis, rupture of the fallopian tube, and death. The only side effect is the occasional flaring-up of an old chronic salpingitis.

The uterus has a lining called the Endometrium. Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue grows on the outside of the uterus, and sometimes on other parts of the body – including the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and sometimes the bowel as well. The lining outside of the uterus can cause severe pain during periods. For some women, the pain may be so severe that they are incapacitated by it for the entire duration of their period. It’s not just physical pain; the chronic pain associated with endometriosis can also lead to emotional difficulties.

Urogynecology is a new field of medicine for female pelvic diseases. An urogynecologist takes care for the women with pelvic floor disorders in a blend of gynecology and reconstruction surgery. Pelvic floor diseases such as prolapse or incontinence that which involves the muscles, ligaments, connective tissue and nerves in the uterus, vagina, bladder and rectum. Generally OB/GYN can take care of such disorders but a female pelvic medicine specialist or an Urogynecologist has an extra training to administer appropriate treatment to the patient and can give better life.

Cervical Cancer occurs when cells change in a woman’s cervix, which connects her uterus with her vagina. This cancer also affect the deeper tissues of her cervix and may spread to other parts of her body (metastasize), often the lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and rectum. Most of the cases, the cervical cancer are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), which is preventable with a vaccine. There are many types of cervical cancers.

Squamous cell carcinoma


Mixed Carcinoma

Menstrual cycle is the series of monthly changes a woman's body goes through in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy. Every month, one of the ovaries releases an egg and this process is called ovulation. Hormonal changes prepare the uterus for pregnancy at the same time. If the ovulation takes place and the egg isn't fertilized, then the lining of the uterus sheds through the vagina. This is a menstrual period. The menstrual cycle, when is counted from the first day of one period to the first day of the next, isn't the same for every woman. Menstrual flow might occur for every 21 to 35 days and last two to seven days. For the first few years when the menstruation begins, long cycles are common. However, menstrual cycles tend to shorten and become more regular as you age is passed.

Family planning is one of the best way to control the birth rate. Family planning include how to achieve desired birth spacing and family size to the individuals , and contributes to improved health outcomes for infants, children, women, and families.

Family Planning services includes: Contraceptive services, Pregnancy testing & counseling, Pregnancy–achieving services including preconception health services, Basic infertility services, Sexually transmitted disease services, Broader reproductive health services, including counseling to patient  and Breast and pelvic tests, Breast and cervical cancer screening, Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention education, counseling, testing.

Uterine prolapse can be occurred in women of any age. When the muscles and ligaments of pelvic floor is stretched and weakens and no longer provide enough support for the uterus then uterine prolapse is examined. This may results, the uterus slips down into or protrudes out of the vagina. But it frequently affects postmenopausal women who've had one or more vaginal deliveries. Mild uterine prolapse usually doesn't require treatment. If uterine prolapse becomes uncomfortable or disrupts your normal life, you might benefit from treatment.

Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an irregular growth that forms inside the womb (uterus) at the beginning of a pregnancy. It's a type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).


Hydatidiform mole or molar pregnancy, causes from abnormal fertilization of the oocyte (egg). It results in an abnormal fetus. The growth of placenta is normal with little or no growth of the fetal tissue. This forms a mass in the uterus. This mass is like a grape-like appearance, as it contains many small cysts when Ultrasound scan is done.

Chances of mole formation is higher in older women.

Molar pregnancy can be of two types:

Partial molar pregnancy: In this there is an abnormal placenta and some fetal development.

Complete molar pregnancy: In this there is an abnormal placenta and no fetus.

Pediatric gynecology is the medical practice that which deals with the health of the vagina, vulva, uterus, and ovaries of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatric gynecology corresponds to pediatric andrology, which deals with medical issues specific to the penis and testes. Generally Pediatric-adolescent gynecologists will have advanced training to understand the unique issues that affect the development and anatomy of growing children and young women.

Generally every surgery has risks. Gynecological surgeries are depended on the type of procedure. That which includes

  • Major Bleeding
  • Uterine perforation or damage to the wall of the uterus, that which can cause bleeding at the time of surgery or after surgery
  • Damage can happen to a nearby part of the body like the bowel because the parts of a woman’s reproductive system are very close to other organs
  • Urinary tract (kidney or bladder) infection
  • Damage can happen to the urinary tract, which can cause incontinence
  • Temporary difficulty with going to the bathroom.

These are some of risks that occur during or after Gynecologic surgeries.

Gynecological imaging is to detect disorders of the female reproductive organs, including ovaries and uterus. Gynecological conditions are diagnosed by doing ultrasound, MRI, computed tomography (CT), and fluoroscopy (hysterosalpinography).

Types of Gynecological imaging are Pelvic Ultrasound, Hysterosonography, 3D/4D Pelvic Ultrasound, Pelvic Doppler, Ovarian Cancer Screening.

The Contraception is nothing but a Birth Control using drugs, agents or surgical procedures to prevent conception or pregnancy. A range of devices and treatments are available for both men & women that can help prevent pregnancy.

There are different methods of contraception:

LARC, such as the implant or intra uterine device (IUD)

Hormonal contraception like using pills or the Depo Provera injection

Barrier methods, such as condoms

Emergency contraception

Fertility awareness

Permanent contraception, such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

Maternal–fetal medicine is a specialists who sub specialize within the field of obstetrics. Their training typically includes a four-year residency in obstetrics and gynecology followed by a three-year fellowship. They would perform prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries. They take charge both as a consultant during lower-risk pregnancies and as the primary obstetrician in especially high-risk pregnancies. After delivery, they work closely with pediatricians or neonatologists. Perinatologists assist for the mother with pre-existing health concerns, as well as complications caused by pregnancy

Fertility awareness

Permanent contraception, such as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

Medicated intrauterine device are used to control the birth rate of the population .This devices are medicated intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil,is a small, often T-shaped birth control instrument that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy. IUDs are one form of long-acting reversible birth control (LARC).In a study found that female family planning providers choose LARC methods more often (41.7%) than the general public (12.1%). Among the birth control methods, IUDs, along with contraceptive implants, result in the greatest satisfaction among users. IUDs are very safe and effective in adolescents as well as those who have not previously had children.

The types of intrauterine devices available are

Nonhormonal: Copper-containing IUD (ParaGard and others)

Hormonal: Progestogen-releasing IUD (Mirena and others)

Ultrasound Genetics are conducted by specially trained sonologists. These physicians do ultrasound scan using high resolution 3-D and 4-D imaging for the most precise view of the fetus. This highly skilled and experienced physician knows what to look for and will evaluate the ultrasound scan. Ultrasound sonographers are technicians who specialize in OB ultrasound imaging and trained by an experienced team of clinical pediatric genetic specialists.

Gynecologic Oncology is a medical field that deals in the cancers in female reproductive system, that which includes ovarian cancer, uterine Cancer, Vaginal Cancer, and Cervical Cancer & Vulvar Cancer. Generally this specialist have extensive training in the diagnosis and giving treatments to the patients. Gynecologic oncologists offers an integrated approach to the diagnosis and surgical management of women's cancers and complex benign gynecologic diseases. Gynecologic oncologists work closely with the doctors related to the field in hematology/oncology and radiation oncology. They discuss each woman's treatment, new developments and research aspects of gynecologic oncology.

Obstetrics and Gynecology is the study of the combination of both the two sub-specialties of obstetrics and gynaecology. It's commonly abbreviated as OB-GYN or OB/GYN.

Obstetrics is the study of pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period and the gynaecology covering the health of the female reproductive system – vagina, uterus, ovaries, and breasts.

Abortion is one of the most common procedures in gynecological operations, but there is still little knowledge about the adverse effects. The studies proved that the complications of medical and surgical abortions is to evaluate the impact of bacterial screening to prevent postabortal infections. Almost all types of abortions takes place in the world are conducted under unsafe conditions, mostly in countries where abortion is illegal or highly restricted. Mostly these unsafe abortions are a major cause of maternal death and disability.  Access to safe abortion are many but that also includes legal barriers, health policy barriers, shortages of trained healthcare workers, and safe health condition after abortion.

Taking drugs in pregnancy increases the chance of birth defects, premature babies, underweight babies, and stillborn births. Exposure to drugs such as marijuana also called weed, ganja, dope, or pot and alcohol before birth has been proven to cause behaviour problems in early childhood. The drugs can also affect the child's memory and attentiveness. Babies born to women who consumes cocaine, alcohol, or tobacco when they are pregnant may have brain structure changes that persist into early adolescence.

Female Genital schistosomiasis FGS is a very dangerous diseases that would effects both men & women and this schistosome infections drastically decreases quality of life, causes much misery and pain, and this leads to pelvic inflammation, infertility and can increase the likelihood of contracting other dangerous diseases such as HIV. Scientist & Professionals researchers are working to define genital schistosomiasis in both women and men, to develop practical diagnostic tests and to improve treatment platforms and outcomes. Schistosomiasis is a starvation & water-transmitted parasitic disease affecting more that 200 million people worldwide. A virus with Schistosoma haematobium may cause Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) with pathological lesions in the female genital tract, especially the cervix.  This shows that FGS is a hitherto under-diagnosed illness of young women in endemic poor tropical countries, deserving further attention.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age. Women suffering with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries would develop huge small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. PCOS can be diagnosed in early stage and can give treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you experience at least two of these signs:

Irregular periods.

Excess androgen.

Polycystic ovaries.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that is developed by the placenta after implantation. The HCG is detected in some pregnancy tests (HCG pregnancy strip tests). Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated levels measured when the patient is not pregnant may lead to a cancer diagnosis and, if the patient suffering with high level of hormones, then he is with paraneoplastic syndromes, however, it is not known whether this production is a contributing cause, or an effect of carcinogenesis. The luteinizing hormone (LH) also known as pituitary analog of HCG, is produced in the pituitary gland of males and females of all ages.

Cosmetic Gynecology includes specialists in gynecology, urogynecology, urology, and plastic surgery and is one of the fastest elective surgery for women. The first procedures of this Subspecialty is the named as the Vaginal Rejuvenation (VR), which is performed to treat the vaginal laxity syndrome (VLS). Vaginal rejuvenation surgery (vaginal tightening for sexual function) is the restore of VLS that may or may not involve symptomatic prolapse. In the early years of these procedures there was very little scientific evidence but in the recent years scientific studies supporting vaginal rejuvenation are surfacing and being presented at scientific meetings throughout the world.  

Reproductive endocrinology is a medical field related to infertility, menopause, and other issues with reproductive hormones.  This speciality is also called reproductive endocrinologist and infertilitist work is focused on helping women to become pregnant and carry a baby to term. Reproductive endocrinologists, or REs, are fertility/infertility specialists. These doctors were trained in providing fertility treatments using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and egg freezing. REs diagnose and treat infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or abnormalities of the reproductive system, and perform fertility preservation procedures like egg freezing.

Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are the most commonly used procedures for fertility preservation in women. The method for fertility preservation in women is when oocyte cryopreservation was still in the experimental stage was embryo cryopreservation. Vitrification is an excellent method used in the IVF laboratory, enabling options and offering flexibility in assisted reproduction.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures that are used primarily to address infertility. This involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility medication. In infertility, ART may also be referred to as fertility treatment. ART basically belongs to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. Some ART forms may be used with regard to fertile couples for genetic purpose (see preimplantation genetic diagnosis). ART is also be used in surrogacy arrangements, although not all surrogacy arrangements involve ART.