Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures that are used primarily to address infertility. This involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility medication. In infertility, ART may also be referred to as fertility treatment. ART basically belongs to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility. Some ART forms may be used with regard to fertile couples for genetic purpose (see preimplantation genetic diagnosis). ART is also be used in surrogacy arrangements, although not all surrogacy arrangements involve ART.